Five Considerations that Help Keep Groups that focus on “Psychosis” Inclusive:

I believe with fervor that having survivor-led group therapy that redefines “psychosis” is missing in the system. Over the last nine years I have been leading what I call special message groups in multicultural settings. I have found not only that such groups can be run safely, but that they have the power to transform lives. However, I do have to admit that when it comes to kicking people out of group to maintain group equilibrium and safety that I believe there are a few things to consider first.

First, I believe that a group leader needs to be prepared for the fact that mad people show up in very different ways. Group facilitators need to be familiar with and recognize a wide variety of presentations or manifestations. Perhaps group members may feel like they are being mocked by others in the group via illusionary ideas of reference, or even controlled by them. They may code up their language for protection. They may treat the facilitator as if the facilitator can hear the same voices they hear. They may not believe in spite of stories shared that the facilitator has experienced what they have. I myself have prepared myself for these challenges by attempting to better define what “psychosis” is. I have reconstructed a definition that can sync up a wide variety of what have historically been defined as conditions. I believe if the leader is not prepared to accept all presentations, people will not feel safe talking about their experiences. I believe that intolerance for people who show up in a different or what is perceived as a difficult manner can be extremely hurtful.

Second, I believe the facilitator can take measures to help train the group to be brave and tolerant of each other. I frame coming together with the specific purpose of sharing untold stories to be an oft neglected privilege that has unfortunately been denied because the “they” experts say it is not safe. I am always willing to start out with my own story. I advocate for a spirit of risk taking by acknowledging that people in the group may be so used to dangerous or distressing experiences that guaranteeing safety would be a disservice. I also might point out that despite what “they” say, this is a practice that has been an effective movement in different countries and that I have done for a long time. In my mind, these kinds of comments are treating the “set of symptoms” as a neglected culture that is subjugated. Moreover, keeping the group focused on the things they have in common with each other in the earlier stages of group development can help. Also strongly supporting alienated individuals also helps train the group to be more tolerant and can avoid many problems that come up in a group discouraging them from expecting a trouble maker from getting kicked out.

Third because there is a high degree of diversity in the mad community, I believe the facilitator needs to be extremely sensitive to all forms of culture, particularly pertaining to relevant issues of subjugation. Discerning the social factors that are effecting the person shows up in a difficult manner is key. Race, class, gender, sexual orientation, age, religion, education, legal justice history, substance abuse history, immigration, gang affiliation, disability, employment history are all social factors that can show up. It is wrong, I believe, to exclude someone because they are testing or trying to teach you about these kinds of issues. Sure some people may try to dominate the groups. A group facilitator needs to be prepared to accept, learn and support everyone. Again, a person who is not accepted on the basis of something that the facilitator is ignorant about or is not curious to explore, may do harm.

Fourth, it may be necessary to meet with individuals outside of group to learn more about why they are hurting the group. If a group member is dominating to the point they doing intentional harm, they may in fact be expressing a need to connect with you. Perhaps, they are experiencing messages that are extremely misunderstood or there is a cultural issue with you that they can talk with you about.  But when the group is truly becoming unsafe for participants, which is rare, out-of-group meetings are called for and the facilitator needs to work on better understanding the problems that come up in group and clearing up any cultural issues. Perhaps meeting might involve two individuals at times. At any rate, making the time for this outside the group is a very important resource.

Fifth, finally, if taking the time for a meeting or two doesn’t improve the behavior, the leader can propose a specific behavior contract to protect the group. In my opinion, this is best utilized in real emergency circumstances and needs to be devoid of the leader’s cultural biases to the best of their ability. This is also something that requires the participant’s participation in which the problem can be identified and an agreed upon solution can be proposed. At the very least the contract needs to be something the participant can buy into. When the participant takes the power to get involved, consequences can involve sitting some groups out, or being referred to individual therapist or perhaps a different group. I’d suggest that if the participant takes steps outside the group to improve themselves the leader can be in communication with them, pining for their return.

It is true that many people who suffer from “psychosis” or message crisis also have complex histories, trauma and other comorbid problems like substance abuse and nuero-diversity. I have seen these kinds of complex issues which may challenge safety get addressed within a group process as such, even by survivors who visit programs rather than work in them.


Author: Tim Dreby

I am an award-winning author and practicing psychotherapist

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